What is Blockchain Technology? - The Detailed Guide

  • By Christy J. Varghese
  • 27 January 2023

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What is Blockchain Technology?

Blockchain is a decentralised, digital ledger system that records and verifies transactions across a network of computers, creating an immutable and tamper-proof record. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin are created on the fundamentals of blockchain. Not only that, but blockchain technology also has many other potential uses in various industries such as supply chain, finance, and healthcare.

If you want to become an expert in blockchain technology, you may consider pursuing an MCA course. An MCA program from the best MCA colleges in India can provide students with the knowledge and skills needed to understand and work with blockchain systems, including programming, cryptography, and network security.

What is Blockchain Technology?

Blockchain technology is a digital ledger that is decentralised, meaning that it is not controlled by a single entity. Instead, it is maintained by a network of computers that work together to validate and record transactions. These transactions can include financial transactions, such as digital currency transfers. Blockchain transactions can also include other types of data, such as property ownership records or voting results.

Features of Blockchain Technology

One of the key features of blockchain technology is its use of cryptography to secure transactions. Each block in a blockchain contains a number of transactions, as well as a reference to the previous block, creating a chain of blocks. This chain is protected by complex mathematical algorithms that ensure that once data is recorded on the blockchain, it cannot be altered or tampered with. This makes blockchain technology highly secure and trustworthy.

Another important aspect of blockchain technology is its transparency. Because all transactions are recorded on the blockchain, anyone can view and verify the data stored on it. This creates a level of transparency and accountability that is not present in traditional centralised systems.

Types of Blockchain

There are several types of blockchain, each with its own unique characteristics and processes. The most common types include:

  • Public blockchain: This type of blockchain is open to anyone and is maintained by a decentralised network of computers. Transactions are recorded on a public ledger that can be viewed and verified by anyone. Examples of public blockchains include Bitcoin and Ethereum.
  • Private blockchain: This type of blockchain is permissioned, meaning that access is restricted to certain users or groups. This type of blockchain is used in enterprise settings and is often used for internal record-keeping and supply chain management.
  • Consortium blockchain: This type of blockchain is a hybrid of public and private blockchains. It is maintained by a group of organisations rather than a single entity and is often used in industries such as finance and logistics.
  • Hybrid blockchain: This type of blockchain is a combination of public and private or consortium blockchain. It allows for greater scalability and flexibility, as some transactions can be made public while others can be kept private.

Blockchain Processes

The processes used in blockchain technology include:

  • Transactions: This is the process of recording and verifying transactions on the blockchain. Transactions are grouped into blocks and added to the blockchain through a process called mining.
  • Mining: This is the process of creating new blocks and adding them to the blockchain. Miners compete to solve complex mathematical algorithms in order to add a new block to the chain.
  • Consensus: This is the process of ensuring that all nodes on the blockchain network have the same copy of the ledger. There are several consensus algorithms used in blockchain technology, including Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS).
  • Smart Contracts: These are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement written into lines of code. They allow for the automation of processes and can be used to facilitate, verify, and enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract.
  • Decentralised Applications (Dapps): These are applications that are built on top of blockchain technology and are designed to run on a decentralised network rather than a single server.

Each type of blockchain uses different processes and consensus algorithms, and has its own advantages and disadvantages. It's important to choose the right type of blockchain depending on the use case and requirements.

Blockchain Technology Applications

Here are some of the sectors and industries that can benefit from the use of blockchain technology. Some of them have already imbibed the technology, while others have the possibility of using it in future.

  1. Financial services: Blockchain can be used to facilitate faster and more secure financial transactions, such as money transfers and cross-border payments. It can also be used for digital identity verification, and to improve the efficiency of clearing and settlement processes.
  2. Supply chain management: Blockchain can create an immutable record of transactions and product movements within a supply chain, which can help improve transparency and traceability.
  3. Digital identity and personal data management: Blockchain can be used to create a secure and decentralised system for storing and managing personal data, which can help to improve privacy and security.
  4. Voting systems: Blockchain can be used to create a tamper-proof and transparent voting system, which can help improve elections' integrity and security.
  5. Real estate: Blockchain can create a tamper-proof and transparent record of property ownership and transactions, which can help reduce fraud and improve efficiency.
  6. Healthcare: Blockchain can be used to create a secure and decentralised system for storing and sharing health records, which can help to improve patient privacy and the efficiency of medical research.
  7. Gaming and digital assets: Blockchain can create a secure and decentralised system for buying, selling, and trading digital assets, such as in-game items and virtual currencies.
  8. Energy and utilities: Blockchain can be used to create a secure and decentralised system for managing and trading energy and utility tokens, which can help improve energy markets' efficiency.

Advantages of Blockchain Technology

There are several advantages of blockchain technology - 

  1. Decentralisation: Blockchain operates on a decentralised network, meaning it does not rely on a central authority to govern transactions. This makes it more secure and transparent than traditional centralised systems.
  2. Immutability: Once data is added to the blockchain, it cannot be altered or tampered with, ensuring the data's integrity and security.
  3. Transparency: All transactions on the blockchain are recorded and visible to all participants, which makes it easy to track and verify transactions.
  4. Smart contracts: Blockchain enables the use of smart contracts — self-executing contracts — with the terms of the agreement written into code. This allows for faster and more efficient contract execution, reducing the need for intermediaries.
  5. Cost-effective: Blockchain can reduce the cost of transactions, as it eliminates the need for intermediaries, such as banks, in certain types of transactions.
  6. Increased efficiency: Blockchain can speed up the process of recording and verifying transactions, making it more efficient than traditional systems.

Career Scope in Blockchain and Salary

The career scope for blockchain experts in India is on the rise as the technology is gaining wider acceptance and adoption in various industries. The demand for professionals with blockchain expertise is growing in sectors such as finance, supply chain management, healthcare, and government.

Some of the career opportunities for blockchain experts in India include:

  • Blockchain Developer: These professionals are responsible for creating and implementing blockchain-based solutions for various industries. They have expertise in programming languages such as Solidity, Go, and C++.
  • Blockchain Consultant: These professionals work with clients to understand their business requirements and provide advice on how blockchain technology can be used to solve their problems. They have a good understanding of the different use cases and applications of blockchain technology.
  • Blockchain Project Manager: These professionals are responsible for managing the development and implementation of blockchain-based projects. They have knowledge of project management methodologies and experience in leading teams.
  • Blockchain Analyst: These professionals are responsible for analysing blockchain-based systems and identifying potential issues and opportunities. They have a good understanding of blockchain technology and its applications.
  • Blockchain Researcher: These professionals conduct research on blockchain technology and its various applications. They have a strong background in computer science and mathematics, and have a deep understanding of the technology.

The salary for blockchain experts in India varies depending on the role and experience, but it generally ranges from ₹6 LPA to ₹20 LPA. With the increasing adoption of blockchain technology in India, the demand for blockchain professionals is expected to continue to grow in the future.

It's important to note that the field of blockchain is still relatively new and constantly evolving, so staying up-to-date with the latest developments and trends is crucial for success in this field.

Where to Study Blockchain Technology in India

There are several universities and institutions in India that offer MCA courses with a specialisation in blockchain technology, and some of the most notable ones are-

Colleges Offering MCA in Blockchain Technology

Course Type



Amity University Online

Full time (Online)


₹1.60 lakh

Parul University



₹1.80 lakh

Usha Martin University



₹1.99 lakh

Joy University


Tamil Nadu

₹1.88 lakh

Keep in mind that the availability and the curriculum of the programs offered by the universities may change over time, and it is best to check with the university directly.


Blockchain technology is a remarkable invention and it has revolutionised the world. It has the potential to influence the business and industries in the future, it will create a lot of niche jobs as well. So, if you are thinking about studying blockchain technology, you may either prepare for admission to the listed universities and colleges or you can get an advanced certification from Sunstone. 

Sunstone is a leading education service provider offering advanced certifications, industry-aligned training modules and skill development programmes for students. All you need to do is sign up with Sunstone. It is present in more than 50 colleges and universities across 35 cities in India. 

FAQ - Blockchain Technology

What is the main purpose of blockchain?

The main purpose of blockchain is to serve as a decentralised and distributed digital ledger that records transactions across a network of computers. It allows for secure, transparent, and tamper-proof record-keeping without a central authority. This technology is the foundation for cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, but it can also be used for many other applications, such as supply chain management, voting systems, and digital identity verification.

Who invented blockchain?

The concept of blockchain was first described in a 2008 whitepaper by an individual or group of individuals using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. The identity of Satoshi Nakamoto is still unknown, and the true identity of the person or group behind the pseudonym has yet to be revealed. The whitepaper, titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System," outlined the design of a decentralised digital currency using a technology called blockchain.

Is blockchain the future?

Many experts believe it will play a significant role in shaping the future of the global economy. It's already being adopted by various industries, such as finance, supply chain, healthcare, and government, to increase efficiency, transparency, and security. For example, it can be used to improve the transparency and efficiency of supply chain management, to secure and streamline financial transactions, and to create tamper-proof voting systems.

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