Your Guide To What Is 5G and How It Works

  • By
  • 25 March 2023
5g guide

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In today’s world, 5G technology has the potential to revolutionise the way we connect and communicate with each other, enabling faster internet speeds, lower latency, and greater network capacity than ever before.

It has the potential to support emerging technologies such as autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, and the Internet of Things (IoT), paving the way for a more connected and efficient world. However, there are also concerns regarding privacy, security, and potential health risks associated with the implementation of 5G technology.

This blog will teach you everything you need to know about 5G technology and how it works. We will also discuss how pursuing a bachelor of technology degree can help you learn more about the field and prepare you for a challenging career in telecommunication engineering

What is 5G? 

5G (or fifth generation) is the latest wireless communication technology that promises faster internet speeds, lower latency, and greater network capacity than previous generations of mobile networks. 

It uses higher radio frequencies to transmit data, which allows for more data to be sent over the airwaves at once. This means that users can download and upload data faster, stream high-quality video with minimal buffering, and experience smoother online gaming and video calls. 

5G technology is also designed to support emerging technologies such as self-driving cars,  virtual and augmented reality, and the Internet of Things (IoT), which involves connecting everyday devices to the internet. 

The deployment of 5G networks is expected to bring significant changes to various industries, from healthcare to transportation, and transform the way we live and work.

The invention of 5G technology

5G technology was not created by a single person or company, but it rather emerged as a result of the combined efforts of numerous companies, standards bodies, and researchers from around the world. 

5G technology development has been ongoing for several years, with early research beginning in the early 2000s. Huawei, Nokia, Ericsson, Qualcomm, Samsung, and Intel are among the key players in the development of 5G technology. 

The standardisation of this technology was led by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), a collaboration between various telecommunications standards organisations, which released the first official 5G specifications in 2017. Companies all over the world have been working to build 5G networks and create new 5G-enabled devices and applications since then.

Previous Generations of Mobile Networks 

The previous generations of mobile networks (1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G) have enabled people to communicate with each other using voice and text messages and access the internet through their mobile devices. However, each generation of mobile networks has brought about improvements in terms of speed, reliability, and the amount of data that can be transmitted. 

Here are some of the key differences between 5G and the previous generations (1G, 2G, 3G, 4G)- 



Previous Networks 


5G is designed to be much faster than its predecessors.

While 4G can provide download speeds of up to 100 Mbps, 5G can deliver speeds of up to 20 Gbps, which is 200 times faster than 4G.


With 5G, latency can be as low as 1 millisecond.

With 4G, latency was 30-50 milliseconds. 


5G is designed to handle much more data traffic than previous generations.

Handled less data traffic. 


5G is expected to have much wider coverage than previous generations, with the ability to reach more remote areas and provide better indoor coverage.

  • 1G supported only analogue voice calls. 
  • 2G provided digital voice calls and limited data transfer.
  • 3G provided faster data transfer and better coverage than 2G.
  • 4G and then 5G provide much better data transfer and better coverage. 


5G is expected to enable connected devices and applications, including the Internet of Things (IoT) and autonomous vehicles.

Comparatively less connectivity with devices and applications. 

How Does a 5G Network Work? 

5G networks operate on a combination of low, mid, and high-frequency bands to provide a range of connectivity options. Here's how it works:

  • Millimeter Wave (mmWave): This is the highest-frequency spectrum that 5G uses, with frequencies between 24-100 GHs. mmWave can provide extremely fast data speeds, but has a limited range and is easily blocked by obstacles such as buildings or trees.
  • Mid-band: This spectrum has frequencies between 2-6 GHs and provides a balance between speed and range. It's able to penetrate obstacles better than mmWave but doesn't offer the same level of speed.
  • Low-band: This spectrum has frequencies below 1 GHz and provides the longest range but at the expense of slower speeds.
  • Massive MIMO: This technology uses a large number of antennas to communicate with multiple devices simultaneously, increasing network capacity and speed.
  • Beamforming: This technology allows the network to direct a signal specifically to a particular device rather than broadcasting to a wide area.
  • Network Slicing: This technology allows the network to be partitioned into virtual networks with different characteristics to meet the needs of different use cases, such as autonomous vehicles or smart cities.

In summary, 5G networks use a combination of spectrum bands and technologies such as Massive MIMO, Beamforming, and Network Slicing to deliver faster speeds, lower latency, and greater network capacity than previous generations of mobile networks.

Applications of 5G Technology 

5G technology has a wide range of applications across various industries. Some of the key applications of 5G technology are

  1. Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB): 5G technology can provide faster and more reliable mobile broadband connectivity than previous generations of mobile networks. This can enable applications such as high-quality video streaming, cloud gaming, and virtual reality experiences.
  2. Internet of Things (IoT): It can support a large number of IoT devices with low latency and high reliability, enabling applications such as smart homes, industrial automation, and smart cities.
  3. Autonomous Vehicles: They can provide the connectivity and low latency required for real-time communication between autonomous vehicles and the infrastructure. This can improve safety and enable new applications such as platooning and autonomous driving.
  4. Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR): 5G can provide the low latency and high bandwidth required for immersive AR and VR experiences, enabling applications such as virtual meetings, remote training, and gaming.
  5. Industry 4.0: It can enable the digital transformation of industries by providing high-speed, low-latency connectivity for applications such as predictive maintenance, remote monitoring, and real-time control of industrial processes.
  6. Healthcare: It can enable remote patient monitoring, telemedicine, and virtual consultations, improving access to healthcare services and reducing costs.
  7. Smart Cities: it can enable a wide range of smart city applications, such as smart lighting, traffic management, and waste management, by providing the connectivity and low latency required to connect a large number of sensors and devices.
  8. Education: It can enable remote learning, virtual classrooms, and interactive educational experiences, improving access to education and enhancing the learning experience.

Future of 5G Technology

The future of 5G technology in India is expected to be very promising and exciting. As more and more 5G networks are rolled out across the globe, we can expect to see an increase in coverage and a wider range of devices that are designed to take advantage of its capabilities. One of the key benefits of 5G is its ability to provide faster speeds and lower latency compared to previous generations of cellular networks. As technology continues to evolve, we can expect these speeds and latencies to continue to improve, enabling new applications and use cases to emerge.

Overall, the future of 5G technology looks very promising, and we can expect to see continued growth and innovation in this space in the years to come. As more top new technology trends and applications emerge, 5G will play an increasingly important role in enabling new capabilities and driving innovation in a wide range of industries.

Top Colleges Offering B.Tech in Telecommunications

Here are some of the best B. Tech Colleges in India for telecommunication engineering- 

Name of the College 

Entrance Exam 

Average Annual Fees

Average Annual Salary 

NIT Warangal

JEE Main scores followed by JoSAA Counseling

₹ 1,30,000/-

₹ 13.3 LPA

SRM University, Kanchipuram


₹ 2,60,000/-

₹ 4 LPA

Amity University, Noida

Direct Admission 

₹ 3,11,0000/-

₹ 4.5 LPA

KL University, Guntur


₹ 2,15,000/-

₹ 5.5 LPA

BMS College of Engineering, Bangalore


₹ 2,29,000/-

₹ 3 LPA

IIIT, Delhi

IIT-JEE Mains and Advance

₹ 3,60,000/-

₹ 8.9 LPA

Government Engineering College, Bilaspur


₹ 12,725/-

₹ 2.6 LPA

NMIET, Bhubaneshwar

JEE Mains and Advance 

₹ 2,68,000/-

₹ 5.8 LPA

COEP Technological University


₹ 3,62,400

₹ 6 LPA

Bengaluru Institute of Technology


₹ 20,00,000

₹ 4.6 LPA

Syllabus for B.Tech in Telecommunications 

The syllabus for B.Tech Degree in Telecommunications may vary depending on the university or institution offering the program. However, here is a general overview of the topics that are typically covered- 

  • Mathematics: Calculus, linear algebra, probability and statistics, differential equations, and numerical methods.
  • Physics: Mechanics, wave optics, electromagnetism, solid state physics.
  • Basic Electronics: Digital electronics, analogue electronics, semiconductor devices, and electronic circuits.
  • Programming: C programming, data structures, algorithms.
  • Telecommunications Basics: Introduction to telecommunications, digital communication, analogue communication, signal processing, and information theory.
  • Networking: Computer networks, network protocols, network security and also about 5G technologies. 
  • Telecommunications Systems: Telephony, wireless communication systems, optical communication systems, satellite communication systems.
  • Microwave Engineering: Microwave devices, microwave communication systems, radar systems.
  • Electromagnetic Theory: Maxwell's equations, transmission lines, waveguides, antennas.
  • Control Systems: Feedback systems, control system design, stability analysis.
  • Project Management: Project planning, project scheduling, project execution, project monitoring and control, and project closing.

In addition to these core topics, some universities may offer elective courses that allow students to specialise in specific areas such as mobile communication, data communication, or communication networks.

Why you should choose Sunstone? 

You can choose Sunstone-powered colleges and universities for your B.Tech for the following reasons- 

  • You can get 70+ sessions by recruiters and industry experts. 
  • Capstone projects to work on every semester. 
  • Get a professional portfolio made to get noticed by recruiters. 
  • Thorough learning from expert faculty (ex-IIMs, IITs). 
  • 50+ guaranteed job interviews with Placement Protection Plan. 

FAQ - 5G Technology

How fast is a 5G network? 

5G network is significantly faster than the previous internet networks, it can deliver up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates.

What are the benefits of 5G? 

Here are some of the peculiarities of 5G networks:

  • Faster Uploads and downloads 
  • Lower network latency 
  • Flexibility with network slicing 
  • More reliable networks

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